TRANSLATION: fox possession

APPEARANCE: Some kitsune are able to possess human beings and cause them to behave in strange ways. Compared with other types of animal spirit possessions, kitsune tsuki is a relatively common form of possession in humans. A person possessed by a fox spirit often develops physical features that appear fox-like, such as sharper teeth or a streamlined, pointy face. For much of Japanese history—until modern medicine was introduced—mental illness and insanity were usually blamed on kitsune tsuki.

INTERACTIONS: There are three main types of kitsune possession: possession of an individual, possession of a family, and possession for use as a medium.

When a kitsune possesses an individual, it is often in retaliation for something done to the kitsune—killing one of its family members, for example. The possessing spirit causes its host to behave erratically and emotionally, making them prone to violent outbreaks and hysteria. People possessed by kitsune sometimes run naked through the streets, foam at the mouth, and yelp like a fox. Kitsune can speak through their hosts mouths. Victims are often able to speak and read languages that they previously had no knowledge of. Kitsune can even control their hosts like a puppet, causing them to do all sorts of evil things. According to folklore, women are more susceptible to fox possession than men. Kitsune are also said to possess people who are weak-minded.

When a kitsune possesses a family, that family becomes rich and fertile. These families were called kitsune mochi, and were able to manipulate the possessing kitsune spirits. In addition to bringing prosperity to their owners, kitsune could be used to bring ruin upon a family’s enemies. Kitsune mochi people used these spirits to place curses, possess, or bring sickness to others. Kitsune mochi families kept their fox spirits for generations, handing down their secrets from parent to child. A kitsune mochi family would honor and care for its possessing spirit, for it could just as easily bring the same ruin upon their entire family line. People suspected of belonging to kitsune mochi families were mistrusted for their unnatural abilities and feared by their neighbors. Even today, in some parts of Japan, people belonging to these lineages occasionally have trouble finding marriage partners, as few parents would allow their son or daughter to join such a family.

Kitsune tsuki for use as a medium involves inviting a kitsune to possess a willing person in order to perform divinations. A kitsune would enter the medium’s body and speak through her mouth, predicting the future or giving secret knowledge. This was a very dangerous practice, as it relies on the willingness of the kitsune to leave the body after the possession—and kitsune are very powerful creatures.

Recognizing possession in a person can be difficult if the victim does not display any obvious physical signs. However, there are a few ways to diagnose kitsune possession. Despite living in a human’s body, kitsune retain certain traits which can betray their presence. All kitsune love fried tofu and azuki beans. A possessed person will strongly crave these foods, often eating them large amounts and not filling up. A possessed person also develops a strong fear of dogs. In addition, a small lump can often be found hidden on the victim’s body. This is the place where the fox spirit resides. If pushed or pricked, this lump slips away and hides in another part of the body. It cannot be caught or removed by any physical means.

Because of widespread belief in fox possession, a number of folk cures have been invented over the centuries to deal with it. Exorcism was usually performed at Inari shrines, as foxes are sacred to Inari. One fairly benign treatment included having the victim licked from head to toe by dogs, which foxes fear intensely. Other less fortunate victims were beaten or burned in attempts to drive out the fox spirit. In some cases, priests would burn fresh pine leaves, suffocating the patient in thick, toxic smoke in an attempt to drive out the possessing spirit. Unfortunately this sometimes killed the patient before driving out the kitsune. In the end, even if the victim was cured of the possession, the families of people accused of kitsune tsuki often suffered ostracism and social isolation for the rest of their lives.