What are yokai?
Yokai, 妖怪, are strange and supernatural creatures from Japanese folklore. The word is a combination of the characters 妖 (yō) — attractive, bewitching, calamity — and 怪 (kai) — mystery, wonder.
Many different English words have been used as translations. Yokai is sometimes translated as monster, demon, spirit, or goblin, but it can encompass all of that and more. The world of yokai also includes ghosts, gods (kami), transformed humans and animals (bakemono), spirit possession (tsukimono), urban legends, and other strange phenomena. It is a broad and vague term, and nothing exists in the English language that quite describes it. Like samurai, geisha, ninja, and sushi, yokai is one of those words that just works better in its native tongue.
Where do yokai come from?
Japanese folklore is an amalgamation of different traditions, with a foundation in the folk religions of isolated tribes living on the Japanese isles. These traditions were modified by Shinto and later Buddhism, incorporating elements from Chinese and Indian folklore as well.
The oldest recorded histories of Japan go back to the 8th century and contain the creation myths and legendary prehistory of Japan. Various documents catalogue these legends and folklore from different perspectives, and contain the earliest records of the gods, demons, and other supernatural creatures of Japanese folklore.
During the Edo period (1603-1868), there was an unprecedented flourishing of culture and art in Japan. Ghost stories and stories about monsters and strange phenomena from the all over Japan experienced a huge surge in popularity. The very first mythical bestiaries were put together by folklorists and artists like Toriyama Sekien, who collected the oral traditions of rural Japan for consumption by the growing urban population (and added a few original monsters into the mix). These begun as collections of painted scrolls, and later expanded into multi-volume illustrated encyclopedias of strange tales and supernatural stories. Toriyama’s The Illustrated Night Parade of One Hundred Demons set the stage for other artists, and the yokai tradition was born. It quickly expanded into every aspect of Japanese culture, from fine art to high theater, from aristocratic ghost story-telling parties to low class bawdlery, and so on.
Yokai fell out of popularity during the Meiji restoration, when Japan rapidly modernized its society and culture. They were all but abandoned as a relic of a superstitious and embarrassing past. After World War II, manga artist Shigeru Mizuki rediscovered their charm and re-introducted them to a modern Japan. His comic series GeGeGe no Kitaro caused a second explosion of interest in the supernatural. Today, the influence of yokai can again be seen in all aspects of Japanese culture, from manga and anime, to video games, brand labels, and even on Japanese currency.
What is this site?
Yokai.com is written, illustrated, and maintained by Matthew Meyer.
This site began as a Halloween-themed art project called A-Yokai-A-Day, in which I painted and described one Japanese yokai on my blog every day for the month of October. A-Yokai-A-Day returned the following year, and again and again, and it became the starting point for my first book, The Night Parade of One Hundred Demons. The more I researched yokai, the more varieties I discovered, and the compulsion to keep translating and painting them grew stronger all the time. As the number of yokai I have illustrated has increased, it only made sense that A-Yokai-A-Day and The Night Parade of One Hundred Demons should have their own domain apart from my blog. Yokai.com opened in 2013 as a database of yokai that I have translated into English and illustrated.
This site is supported by a Patreon project. If you would like to become a yokai supporter, please visit patreon.com/osarusan. Thank you to all of you who make the work this website possible, and a special thanks to the major backers of the Patreon project:
Major Yokai Patrons